In superficial overview stochastic resonance is the increase in certain parts of system output due to a random, or noise, input to the system. There are at least two reasons for studying stochastic resonance;
What first caught my eye was a description of studies that showed that when a noise input was added to a known input to sensor cells in crayfish tails increased sensitivity to the initial stimulus resulted. The implication is then that the noisy, running water world in which the crayfish lives aids in letting the crayfish identify when a predator fish is sneaking up behind.
I'd been working on sensor development for monitoring machine operation and condition and manufacturing processes, and the combination of a possibly useful type of sensing system and signal analysis scheme and a catch idea lured me (to continue with fish stories).